Les grenadiers d'Oudinot

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Les grenadiers d'Oudinot

Message  Thierry M. le Mer 5 Nov 2014 - 15:31

Il y a un article très intéressant sur le site « Napoleon Series » :
http://www.napoleon-series.org/
Pour vous faire gagner du temps, je vous le reproduis in extenso ci-dessous :

Oudinot's Grenadier Division: 1806 - 1809
By George Nafziger

A total of 17 « élite » battalions were raised and organized into seven regiments in December 1806. These regiments were organized into Oudinot's famous "Grenadier division." On 5 December 1805 this division was organized as :

Grenadier Division : General de division Oudinot
Brigade: Generaux de brigade Dupas & Ruffin
1st Grenadier Regiment : 58th Line Regiment (16/439), 13th Line Regiment (15/508 )
2nd Grenadier Regiment : 9th Line Regiment (19/470), 81st Line Regiment (15/515)
3rd Grenadier Regiment : 2nd Legere Regiment (18/499), 3rd Legere Regiment (18/549)
4th Grenadier Regiment : 28th Legere Regiment (20/547), 31st Legere Regiment (22/588 )
5th Grenadier Regiment : 12th Legere Regiment (20/560), 15th Legere Regiment (20/516)
Artillery:
Det. 6th Horse Artillery (1/27), Det. 1st Foot Artillery (4/101)
2-12pdrs, 6-8pdrs, 4-4pdrs
Det. 5th (bis) Train Battalion (2/179)

The division underwent several changes. In January 1806 it had :
Grenadier Division: General de division Oudinot
Brigade: Generaux de brigade Dupas & Ruffin
1st Grenadier Regiment : 58th Line Regiment (18/547), 13th Line Regiment (detached)
2nd Grenadier Regiment (detached) : 9th Line Regiment, 81st Line Regiment
3rd Grenadier Regiment : 2nd Legere Regiment (21/690), 3rd Legere Regiment (20/640)
4th Grenadier Regiment : 28th Legere Regiment (21/685), 31st Legere Regiment (21/628 )
5th Grenadier Regiment : 12th Legere Regiment (22/723), 15th Legere Regiment (23/619)
Artillery:
Det. 6th Horse Artillery (1/47), Det. 1st Foot Artillery (5/130)
2-12pdrs, 6-8pdrs, 4-4pdrs
Det. 5th (bis) Train Battalion (4/214)
Det. 4th Artillery Artisans (0/5)

The division continued in this form until late September or early October when it was detached from the V Corps. By 10 January 1807 the Grenadier Division had undergone a major reorganization. On 10 January it stood as follows:
1st Brigade: General de brigade Ruffin
1st Regiment
1st Battalion : Chef de bataillon Trahier (19/508 )
1st Co. Carabiniers 27th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 27th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 94th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 94th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 95th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 95th Line
2nd Battalion: Chef de bataillon Broyer (20/551)
1st Co. Grenadiers 8th Line, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 8th Line
3rd Co. Grenadiers 45th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 45th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 54th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 54th Line

2nd Regiment
3rd Battalion: Chef de bataillon Fondousse (15/317)
1st Co. Carabiniers 9th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 9th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 32nd Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 32nd Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 96th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 96th Line
4th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Chabert (19/520)
1st Co. Grenadiers 30th Line, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 30th Line
3rd Co. Grenadiers 33rd Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 33rd Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 51st Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 51st Line


2nd Brigade: General de brigade Conroux
3rd Regiment
5th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Arnauld (19/502)
1st Co. Carabiniers 10th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 10th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 24th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 24th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 26th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 26th Line
6th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Franchot (19/519)
1st Co. Grenadiers 18th Line, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 18th Line
3rd Co. Grenadiers 4th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 4th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 57th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 57th Line

4th Regiment
7th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Coquereau (21/460)
1st Co. Carabiniers 17th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 17th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 21st Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 21st Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 34th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 34th Line
8th Battalion: Chef de bataillon ? (Monnet) (12/330)
1st Co. Grenadiers 40th Line, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 40th Line
3rd Co. Grenadiers 64th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 64th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 88th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 88th Line


3rd Brigade: General de brigade Villatte
5th Regiment
9th Battalion: Chef de bataillon ? (Dauger) (20/494)
1st Co. Carabiniers 6th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 6th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 39th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 39th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 69th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 69th Line
10th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Comminet (19/542)
1st Co. Grenadiers 27th Line, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 27th Line
3rd Co. Grenadiers 59th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 59th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 76th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 76th Line

6th Regiment
11th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Gueret (21/473)
1st Co. Carabiniers 16th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 16th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 44th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 44th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 105th Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 105th Line
12th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Boidot (18/499)
1st Co. Carabiniers 7th Legere, 2nd Co. Voltigeurs 7th Legere
3rd Co. Grenadiers 24th Line, 4th Co. Voltigeurs 24th Line
5th Co. Grenadiers 63rd Line, 6th Co. Voltigeurs 63rd Line


4th Brigade:
7th Regiment
13th Battalion: (8/253)
1st Co. Carabiniers 25th Legere
2nd Co. Carabiniers 28th Legere, 3rd Co. Voltigeurs 28th Legere

Artillery
Det 1st Foot Artillery, 3rd Horse Artillery
Artillery Artisans
Det/5th Train Battalion, Det/8th Train Battalion
Engineers
1/5th Sapper Battalion (2/78 )

The « provisional » regiments were formed by organizing various independent and loose battalions and companies posted in the rear areas. In these instances, each depot might send as few as one or possibly more companies to the front. A total of sixteen of these provisional regiments were raised between 1805 and March 1807. After the campaigns in Germany and Poland were finished, these elite and provisional regiments were disbanded. The process began anew after the invasion of Portugal and Spain. On 5 November 1807 a total of twelve provisional regiments were raised. These two formations are not to be confused with the « regiments de marche » which were also ad hoc formations organized to transport new recruits to the front lines from the depots insuring their safe arrival, safe from partisan attack and the opportunity to desert. None of these regiments, provisional, elite, or de marche had complete staffs and, as a result, were administrative nightmares for the army and the men that served in them. On 1 June 1807 the division contained:

1st Brigade: General de brigade Ruffin
1st Regiment
1st Battalion: Chef de bataillon Launier, Staff (5/9)
1st Co. (3/65) Carabiniers 6th Legere, 2nd Co. (3/72) Carabiniers 7th Legere, 3rd Co. (3/73) Carabiniers 9th Legere
4th Co. (3/60) Carabiniers 16th Legere, 5th Co. (3/66) Carabiniers 25th Legere, 6th Co. (3/73) Carabiniers 27th Legere
2nd Battalion: Chef de bataillon Broyer
1st Co. (3/89) Voltigeurs 6th Legere, 2nd Co. (3/69) Voltigeurs 7th Legere, 3rd Co. (3/72) Voltigeurs 9th Legere
4th Co. (3/73) Voltigeurs 16th Legere, 5th Co. (3/52) Voltigeurs 25th Legere, 6th Co. (3/76) Voltigeurs 27th Legere

2nd Regiment
3rd Battalion: Chef de bataillon Fondousse, Staff (5/1)
1st Co. (3/65) Grenadiers 8th Line, 2nd Co. (3/65) Grenadiers 30th Line, 3rd Co. (3/88 ) Grenadiers 33rd Line
4th Co. (2/75) Grenadiers 51st Line, 5th Co. (3/56) Grenadiers 95th Line, 6th Co. (3/49) Grenadiers 96th Line
4th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Chabert
1st Co. (3/84) Voltigeurs 8th Line, 2nd Co. (3/58 ) Voltigeurs 30th Line, 3rd Co. (3/77) Voltigeurs 33rd Line
4th Co. (2/61) Voltigeurs 51st Line, 5th Co. (3/75) Voltigeurs 95th Line, 6th Co. (3/55) Voltigeurs 96th Line


2nd Brigade: General de brigade Conroux
3rd Regiment
5th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Arnauld, Staff (6/0)
1st Co. (2/75) Carabiniers 10th Legere, 2nd Co. (2/66) Carabiniers 17th Legere, 3rd Co. (3/55) Carabiniers 21st Legere
4th Co. (3/74) Carabiniers 24th Legere, 5th Co. (2/45) Carabiniers 26th Legere, 6th Co. (3/63) Carabiniers 28th Legere
6th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Franchot
1st Co. (3/61) Voltigeurs 10th Legere, 2nd Co. (2/61) Voltigeurs 17th Legere, 3rd Co. (3/49) Voltigeurs 21st Legere
4th Co. (3/67) Voltigeurs 24th Legere, 5th Co. (3/73) Voltigeurs 26th Legere, 6th Co. (2/59) Voltigeurs 28th Legere

4th Regiment
7th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Coquereau, Staff (5/0)
1st Co. (3/81) Grenadiers 4th Line, 2nd Co. (3/66) Grenadiers 18th Line, 3rd Co. (3/75) Grenadiers 34th Line
4th Co. (3/68 ) Grenadiers 40th Line, 5th Co. (2/51) Grenadiers 64th Line, 6th Co. (2/54) Grenadiers 88th Line
8th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Monnet
1st Co. (1/58 ) Voltigeurs 4th Line, 2nd Co. (3/69) Voltigeurs 18th Line, 3rd Co. (3/73) Voltigeurs 34th Line
4th Co. (3/76) Voltigeurs 40th Line, 5th Co. (3/56) Voltigeurs 64th Line, 6th Co. (3/72) Voltigeurs 88th Line


3rd Brigade: General de brigade Barry
5th Regiment
9th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Dauger, Staff (6/0)
1st Co. (2/74) Grenadiers 27th Line, 2nd Co. (3/70) Grenadiers 39th Line, 3rd Co. (3/64) Grenadiers 45th Line
4th Co. (3/66) Grenadiers 59th Line, 5th Co. (3/51) Grenadiers 69th Line, 6th Co. (3/78 ) Grenadiers 70th Line
10th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Comminet
1st Co. (3/73) Voltigeurs 27th Line, 2nd Co. (2/59) Voltigeurs 39th Line, 3rd Co. (3/78 ) Voltigeurs 45th Line
4th Co. (3/64) Voltigeurs 59th Line, 5th Co. (3/66) Voltigeurs 69th Line, 6th Co. (3/90) Voltigeurs 70th Line

6th Regiment
11th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Vaugrignaude, Staff (5/8 )
1st Co. (3/61) Grenadiers 24th Line, 2nd Co. (3/83) Grenadiers 44th Line, 3rd Co. (3/61) Grenadiers 54th Line
4th Co. (3/84) Grenadiers 63rd Line, 5th Co. (3/61) Grenadiers 94th Line, 6th Co. (3/68 ) Grenadiers 105th Line
12th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Boidot
1st Co. (3/60) Voltigeurs 24th Line, 2nd Co. (3/71) Voltigeurs 44th Line, 3rd Co. (3/67) Voltigeurs 54th Line
4th Co. (2/76) Voltigeurs 63rd Line, 5th Co. (3/77) Voltigeurs 94th Line, 6th Co. (3/65) Voltigeurs 105th Line


4th Brigade: General de brigade Albert
7th Regiment
13th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Cornebize, Staff (5/1)
1st Co. (3/73) Carabiniers 25th Legere, 2nd Co. (3/78 ) Carabiniers 22nd Line, 3rd Co. (3/63) Grenadiers 32nd Line
4th Co. (3/60) Grenadiers 57th Line, 5th Co. (3/65) Grenadiers 65th Line, 6th Co. (-)
14th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Boulon
1st Co. (2/104) Voltigeurs 22nd Line, 2nd Co. (2/46) Voltigeurs 32nd Line, 3rd Co. (3/61) Voltigeurs 57th Line
4th Co. (3/99) Voltigeurs 65th Line, 5th Co. (-), 6th Co. (-)

8th Regiment
15th Battalion: Chef de bataillon Jouan
1st Co. (3/80) Grenadiers 3rd Line, 2nd Co. (1/71) Grenadiers 61st Line, 3rd Co. (1/70) Grenadiers 85th Line
4th Co. (1/70) Grenadiers 111th Line, 5th Co. (-), 6th Co. (-)
16th Battalion:
1st Co. (3/96) Voltigeurs 3rd Line, 2nd Co. (2/85) Voltigeurs 61st Line, 3rd Co. (3/73) Voltigeurs 85th Line
4th Co. (2/82) Voltigeurs 111th Line, 5th Co. (-), 6th Co. (-)
Artillery
Det 2/1st Foot Artillery (1/41)
4/,5/3rd Horse Artillery (5/145)
1st & 4th Artillery Artisan Companies (0/9)
Det. 2/5th (bis) Train Battalion (1/60)
Det. 1/,2/8th (bis) Train Battalion (3/187)
Engineers
1/5th Sapper Battalion (0/35)

Oudinot's division was reorganized on 8 January, 1808. Though it still consisted of 17 battalions, they were now formed into eight regiments. On 12 January 1808 a further six provisional regiments were raised.

On 5 December 1808 Napoleon began breaking up Oudinot's grenadiers by returning those companies whose parent regiments were assigned to Bernadotte's and Davout's corps. It was reduced to a total of 62 companies organized into ten elite battalions. It was organized as follows (the elite companies coming from the battalions indicated.)

Converged Grenadier Division: General de division Oudinot (21,388 men)
1st Division: General de division Tharreau (7,145 men)
Brigade: General de brigade Conroux
1st Legere - 4/6th, 4/24th, & 4/25th Legere
3rd Legere - 4/9th, 4/16th, & 4/27th Legere

Brigade: General de brigade Albert
1st Line - 4/8th, 4/24th & 4/45th Line
2nd Line - 4/94th, 4/95th & 4/96th Line

Brigade: General de brigade Jarry
3rd Line - 4/54th & 4/63rd Line
2nd Division: General de division Claparede (8860)

Brigade: General de brigade Coehorn
2nd Legere - 4/17th, 4/21st & 4/28th Legere
4th Legere - 4/26th, Tirailleurs du Po & Corsican Tirailleurs

Brigade: General de brigade Lesuire
5th Line - 4/27th & 4/39th Line
6th Line - 4/59th, 4/69th & 4/76th Line

Brigade: General de brigade Ficatier
7th Line - 4/40th & 4/88th Line
8th Line - 4/64th, 4/100th & 4/103rd Line

The Decree of 1 March 1809 disbanded the 33e Legere. The "elite" battalions belonging to Oudinot's division, each having four companies, were reorganized on by the Decree of 31 March 1809 into twelve demi-brigades, each of 3 battalions. On 7 February 1809 the corps was organized as follows:

1st Division: General de division Claparede
1st Brigade:
1st Demi-brigade Legere
6th Legere (244/90/212/0/546)*
24th Legere (161/125/264/0/550)
25th Legere (230/100/200/0/530)
2nd Demi-brigade Legere
9th Legere (243/167/155/0/565)
16th Legere (0/0/458/0/458 )
27th Legere (233/152/164/0/549)

2nd Brigade:
1st Demi-brigade
8th Line Regiment (306/117/104/0/527)
24th Line Regiment (48/200/358/0/508 )
45th Line Regiment (253/92/163/0/508 )
2nd Demi-brigade
94th Line Regiment (281/64/154/0/499)
95th Line Regiment (279/128/104/0/511)
96th Line Regiment (172/209/60/0/441)

3rd Brigade:
3rd Demi-brigade
54th Line Regiment (217/114/122/0/453)
63rd Line Regiment (233/55/219/50/557)
28th Line Regiment (0/0/0/0/0) (assigned, but not present)
4th Demi-brigade
4th Line Regiment (179/95/265/0/539)
18th Line Regiment (236/41/207/0/564)
46th Line Regiment (0/0/0/0/0) (assigned, but not present)

2nd Division: General de division Tharreau
1st Brigade:
2nd Demi-brigade Legere
17th Legere (308/11/231/0/550)
21st Legere (295/0/232/0/527)
28th Legere (260/29/275/0/448 )
3rd Demi-brigade Legere
26th Legere (138/145/175/0/448 )
Tirailleur Corses (813/0/120/0/933)
Tirailleurs du Po (991/0/150/0/1,141)

2nd Brigade:
5th Demi-brigade
27th Line Regiment (244/39/143/200/526)
39th Line Regiment (222/64/165/100/551)
50th Line Regiment (0/0/0/0/0)(assigned, but not present)
6th Demi-brigade
59th Line Regiment (197/86/201/50/534)
69th Line Regiment (204/81/170/80/535)
76th Line Regiment (136/147/148/80/511)

3rd Brigade:
7th Demi-brigade
40th Line Regiment (270/18/266/0/546)
75th Line Regiment (0/0/0/0/0)(assigned, but not present)
88th Line Regiment (251/32/224/0/507)
8th Demi-brigade
64th Line Regiment (215/66/258/0/539)
100th Line Regiment (0/0/252/250/502)
103rd Line Regiment (0/0/262/250/512)

* Figures are as follows:
l.) Voltigeurs & grenadiers on 7 February,
2.) Detachments drawn from the Conscrits of the Guards
3.) Fusiliers drawn from the first 12 "compagnies de marche"
4.) Detachments from the "13e bataillon de marche"
5.) Total strength of the battalion.

A review of the strength figures and the sources of those troops for this phase of Oudinot's famous corps clearly indicates that they were not an "elite" formation.

Sources
The above information was taken verbatim from George Nafziger's Royal, Republican, Imperial, a History of the French Army from 1792-1815: Vol 1 - Infantry - History of Line Infantry (1792-1815), Internal & Tactical Organization; Revolutionary National Guard, Volunteers Federes, & Compagnies Franches; and 1805 National Guard.
We would like to thank George for so generously permitting us to use it. This book, along with other books and detailed orders-of-battle by George Nafziger, are available at: http://www.infinet.com/~nafziger

© Copyright 1995-2002, The Napoleon Series, All Rights Reserved.

Il y a aussi un article très intéressant de Rigo « Le Plumet » dans le N°61 (mai - juin 1981) de la revue « Uniformes ».

_________________
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Re: Les grenadiers d'Oudinot

Message  Thierry M. le Mer 5 Nov 2014 - 15:31

Résumé de l'article de Rigo « Le Plumet » :
La circulaire ministérielle datée du 22 novembre 1803 ordonne aux régiments ne faisant pas partie de l'armée des côtes de l'océan (l'armée d'invasion, future armée d'Austerlitz) – comme le 9e de ligne à Strasbourg – de constituer un bataillon d'élite composé d'un état-major, de trois compagnies de grenadiers et de trois compagnies de chasseurs (*) totalisant six cents hommes choisis parmi les soldats les plus braves.

(*) Note de Rigo : Sous Louis XVI, toutes les compagnies de chasseurs « à pied » furent regroupées en régiments. Chaque bataillon d'infanterie de ligne n'eut désormais qu'une seule compagnie d'élite réservée aux soldats de grande taille. Sous la République, les chefs de corps prirent souvent l'habitude, lors des campagnes, de regrouper leurs meilleurs fusiliers en une seconde compagnie d'élite qu'ils baptisèrent généralement du nom de chasseurs. Bien entendu, cette habitude fut entérinée par l'ordonnance et ce fut la création des compagnies de voltigeurs.

En mars 1805, les bataillons d'élite sont réunis deux par deux afin de former six puis cinq régiments divisés en trois brigades. L'effectif théorique est porté à 128 hommes par compagnie, soit 768 hommes par bataillon.
Le 1er juillet 1806, tous les bataillons d'élite sont renvoyés dans leur régiment d'origine afin de renforcer ces derniers.


Le décret du 21 octobre 1806 réunit les compagnies d'élite des bataillons de dépôt des 48 régiments de la Grande Armée en huit régiments de deux bataillons. Le premier bataillon de chacun se compose uniquement des carabiniers ou des grenadiers prélevés de six (*) régiments distincts, le second ne comprenant que des voltigeurs.
(*) il y a donc 6 compagnies par bataillon (note de T.M.)


En février 1809, toutes les compagnies du centre (fusiliers) formant le 4e bataillon (dépôt) des régiments dont les compagnies d'élite sont affectées aux grenadiers et voltigeurs réunis, doivent les rejoindre à Augsbourg.
Près de 26000 fusiliers ou chasseurs, dont beaucoup savent à peine manier un fusil, sont dirigés sur la Bavière. Les 39 bataillons à 6 compagnies (1e grenadiers, 1e voltigeurs, 4 fusiliers) ainsi reconstitués forment 13 demi-brigades d'élite.

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Re: Les grenadiers d'Oudinot

Message  buriefr le Jeu 6 Nov 2014 - 9:17

En fait il faut noter qu'il y a deux formations/organisations différentes : celle de 1805 et celle de 1806 (cf mon article sur les listes 1805-1807) :

En 1805, certains régiments sont placés en garnisons (essentiellement sur le Rhin puis en Allemagne). Leurs compagnies d’élite (grenadiers, carabiniers et voltigeurs) sont regroupées au sein d’une division de réserve confiée au général Oudinot. Cette unité est dissoute début 1806 et ne participe donc pas à la campagne de Prusse (bataille d’Iéna). Les compagnies sont regroupées par 8 pour former des bataillons répartis deux par deux en cinq régiments.

Pour la campagne de 1807, la réserve du général Oudinot est reconstituée, avec les deux compagnies d’élite des bataillons de dépôt, en six puis sept régiments de deux bataillons de six compagnies.
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